For the Reformed Church, this is General Synod season. The General Synod Workbook has been released, and the church is abuzz with the variety of items and topics that will be discussed at General Synod.
The first piece related specifically to the General Synod is about the ministry designation of commissioned pastor. Because it is not just a practical or functional issue, but a deeply theological one, it may be helpful to lay some foundation work from which to build to address the various facets to the changes that are being proposed to this General Synod.
This post, then, will briefly discuss the Reformed’s rich theology of office as well as some of the challenges inherent in this still quite new ministry designation of “commissioned pastor,” and next post will address some of the more particular items before the General Synod regarding this particular designation of the elder.
The Preamble of the Book of Church Order lays a solid theological foundation for why the church operates as it does, and to frame this discussion it is worthwhile looking to it. It begins thusly (emphases in the quotations are mine):
The purpose of the Reformed Church in America, together with all other churches of Christ, is to minister to the total life of all people by preaching, teaching, and proclamation of the gospel of Jesus Christ, the Son of God, and by all Christian good works. That purpose is achieved most effectively when good order and proper discipline are maintained by means of certain offices, govenernmental agencies, and theological and liturgical standards.
The Reformed Church is governed by offices (minister of Word and sacrament, elder, deacon, professor of theology) gathered in assemblies (consistory, classis, regional synod, General Synod). The gathering of offices is not simply an organizational aspect but an essential (per the essence) aspect.
The offices meeting together represent the fullness of Christ’s ministry. (Preamble)
As such, the Reformed have located the church, primarily, at the local level, gathered around pulpit, table, and font. The offices, in which the above line of the Preamble states, are the minister of Word and sacrament, the elder, and the deacon. These offices are primarily theological in nature, that is, they come from Christ to the church. Christ delegates authority to the offices, and it is the offices that are given authority and responsibility, not the people. However, offices do not exist in a disembodied way, but are enfleshed in people. In order for people to fill these offices, God calls internally (with a felt sense of God’s call) and externally (by the confirmation of the Christian community that they are indeed called by God).
To these offices (and the people ordained into them), certain responsibilities are given. Indeed, the government of the church speaks primarily of offices and not people, and of offices and not “leadership.”
To the minister of Word and sacrament
The Office of Minister of Word and Sacrament is one of servanthood and service representing Christ through the action of the Holy Spirit. Ministers are called to proclaim the gospel of Jesus Christ and to the ministery of the Word of God. In the local church the minister serves as pastor and teacher of the congregation to build up and equip the whole church for its ministry in the world. The minister preaches and teaches the Word of God, administers the sacraments, shares responsibility with the elders and deacons and members of the congregation for their mutual Christian growth, exercises Christian love and discipline in conjuction with the elders, and endeavors that everything in the church be done in a proper and orderly way. (From the Book of Church Order (BCO), 1.I.1.4)
To the elder
The office of elder is one of servanthood and service representing Christ through the action of the Holy Spirit. In the local church elders are chosen members of spiritual discernment, exemplary life, charitable spirit, and wisdom grounded in God’s Word. Elders, together with the installed minister/s serving under a call, are to have supervision fo the church entrusted to them. They are set apart for a ministry of watchful and responsible care for all matters relating to the welfare and good order of the church. They are to study God’s Word, to oversee the household of faith, to encourage spiritual growth, to maintain loving discipline, and to provide for the proclamation of the gospel and the celebration of the sacraments. They have oversight over the conduct of the members of the congregation and seek to bring that conduct into conformity with the Word of God, thereby empowering all members to live out their Christian vocation in the world. Elders exercise an oversight over the conduct of one another, and of the deacons, and of the minister/s. They make certain that what is preached and taught by the minister/s is in accord with Holy Scripture. They assist the minister/s with their good counsel and in the task of visitation. (1.I.1.8)
And certainly not least, to the office of deacon:
The office of deacon is one of servanthood and service representing Christ through the action of the Holy Spirit. In the local church deacons are chosen members of spiritual commitment, exemplary life, compassionate spirit, and sound judgement, who are set apart for a minitsry of mercy, service, and outreach. They are to receive the contributions of the congregation and to distrubute them under the direction of the consistory. The deacons give particular attention and care to the whole benevolence program of the church. They have charge of all gifts contributed for the benefit of the poor and distribute them with discretion. They visit and comfort those in material need…(1.I.1.10).
As can be seen, the ministry of each of the offices is essential to the life of the church.
It is important, however, to bear in mind that office dictates role and responsibility, not the other way around. Therefore, one preaches the Word and administers the sacraments because one is a minister of Word and sacrament. One is not a minister of Word and sacrament because one preaches the Word and administers the sacraments. Similarly, one rules with the elders because one is an elder. One is not an elder because one functions like one. The same with deacons. When we understand that office dictates role, then we can see the challenges inherent in the commissioned pastor designation and have plagued the church since its genesis.
The commissioned pastor designation is (and since its inception has been) lodged in the office of elder. That is, it was originally designed that someone would already be functioning within the office of elder, and could be trained by the classis for a particular ministry that was needed within that classis for a specific period of time. Furthermore, commissioned pastor is a temporary role designation, not an office. However, shortly after this designation was invented, it was allowed for people who are not elders to be recommended as candidates for commissioned pastor. Indeed, experience has shown that many people are ordained to the office of elder in order to become commissioned pastors — which denigrates the office of elder by treating it as a means to an end rather than respecting the unique ministry of the elder.
Since this designation was invented just over a decade ago, it has grown to the point where commissioned pastors are being “called” to serve as the senior or sole pastor of a local church. And when this happens, that local church is deprived the ministry of one of the offices that Christ has given to the church (cf. “The offices meeting together represent the fullness of Christ’s ministry” (Preamble)).
Finally, One of the most fundamental and universal principles of Reformed church polity is the equality of the ministry or parity of office. Every person exercising ministry in one of the offices is equal to all others who are ordained into that office. There are no ministers which are fundamentally higher than other ministers, there are no elders which are fundamentally higher than other elders, and there are no deacons which are fundamentally higher than other deacons.
The commissioned pastor designation has created a de facto two-tiered system of either elders (some are “just” elders while others are “more than just” elders) or ministers (some are ministers who went to seminary and can transfer between classes, others didn’t go to seminary and can’t move as freely and are not quite ministers). In either case, this designation presents particular problems for this foundational and historic principle.
When we make decisions about office and church and the preaching of the Word and administration of the sacraments, we are not making leadership or organizational decisions, we are making theological decisions that have implications for our understanding of the doctrine of the church — that is, what it means to be the body of Christ. At times, there are necessary changes and adaptations that must be made to meet changing contexts and situations, and the Reformed Church has adapted throughout its history. My argument is not that commissioned pastors necessarily have no place, but rather, that we must be thoughtful when we make decisions, and in adapting to meet changing contexts we must not ignore or sacrifice our understanding of what it means to be the body of Christ.
This post is a revision of one made previously for the 2016 General Synod, at That Reformed Blog